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Posted 1st July 2018

Updated 10th May 2021      By @udema_MIS






The Upper Denkyira East Municipality is one of the twenty-two Administrative Districts of the Central Region. The Municipality was established in 2007 by Legislative Instrument (LI) 1877. The Administrative Capital is Dunkwa-On-Offin.


Vision and Mission Statement



The vision of the Assembly is to become a world class Assembly by providing client-focused and customer friendly services to its stakeholders.



The Municipal Assembly exists to improve the quality of life of the people in the Municipality by initiating sustainable programmes to promote good health, education, environmental sanitation and economic development.



1. To fulfil its mission the Municipal Assembly has set itself the following objectives:

2. To strengthen Institutional capacity of the Municipal Assembly

3. To promote high standard of education and good health conditions in the Municipality.

4. To improve the financial base of the Assembly.

5. To improve sanitation and waste management

6. To provide basic social infrastructure


Core Values


Team work/spirit, commitment to duty and respect for clients are the core values of the Assembly


Legal Framework of the District Assembly


The Upper Denkyira Municipal Assembly performs its functions through the following legal frameworks

1. The 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Ghana which enshrines decentralization policy

2. The Local Governance Act (Act 936 of 2016) which provides the legal basis for the implementation of decentralization

3. Public Financial Management Act (PFM), 2016 Act 921

4. Public Procurement Amendment Act, 2016 (Act 914)

5. The National Development Planning Commission Act, 1994 (Act 479)

6. The National Development Planning Systems Act, 1994 (Act 480)

7. The LI 1961 of Local Government (Departments of District Assemblies)

8. Internal Audit Agency Act, 2003 (Act 658)

9. Land Use and Spatial Planning Act 2016, (Act 925).

10. Ghana Audit Service Act, 2000 (Act 584) LI 2232


Functions of the Municipal Assembly


Through Act, 936 of the Local Governance Act, the Municipal Assembly is mandated to perform the following functions.

1. Exercise political and administrative authority in the district

2. Promote local economic development; and

3. Provide guidance, give authorities in the district as may be prescribe by law

4. A district Assembly shall exercise deliberative, legislative and execute function

5.Be responsible for the overall development of the district;

6. Formulate and execute plans, programmes and strategies for the effective mobilisation of resources necessary for the overall development of the district;

7. Promote and support productive activity and social development in the district and remove any obstacle to initiative and development;

8. Be responsible for the development, improvement and management of human settlement and the environment in the district;

9. In co-operation with the appropriate national and local security agencies, be responsible for the maintenance of security and public safety in the district;

10. Ensure ready access to courts in the district for the promotion of justice;

  • Act to preserve and promote the cultural heritage within the district;
  • Execute approved development plans for the district;
  • Guide, encourage and support sub-district local structures, public agencies and local communities to perform their functions in the execution of approved development plans;


Location and Size


The Municipality lies within Latitudes 5º 30’ and 6º 02’ North of the Equator and Longitudes 1º W and 2º West of the Greenwich Meridian.  It shares common boundaries with Adansi South in the North, Assin North Municipal in the East, Twiffo Atti-Morkwa District in the South, Wassa Amenfi East in the West and Upper Denkyira West District in the North-West. The Upper Denkyira East Municipality covers a total land area of 501.94 square kilometres, which is about 5.19% of the total land area of the Central Region.



The Municipality falls within the semi equatorial zone with its characteristics.  The mean annual temperatures are 29º C in the hottest months and about 24ºC in the coolest months.  There are two rainfall regimes with total annual mean rainfall between 120mm and 200mm.  The first rainy season is from May to June with the heaviest in June, while the second rainy season is from September to Mid-November.  The main dry season is from late November to February. 



The Upper Denkyira East Municipality falls within the semi-deciduous forest zone.  It consists of three layers which do not differ much from the rain forest. Trees of the lower layer and some of the topmost layers stay evergreen throughout the year.  This is due to the generally moist condition of the area.  Due to increasing cocoa and mining activities in the area, especially in the northern part of the Municipality, very little of the original forest remains, and most of what is left are secondary forests.  The forest contains various valuable timber species such as Mahogany and Wawa. The district has one major forest reserves which is the Benso-Benn Forest Reserves. Out of the total forest area of 86.03sq.km only 20% falls within the Upper Denkyira Municipality. The communities that surrounds the forest are  Asikuma, Tegyemouso, Denyasi, Atobiase, Esaase, Fawomanyo .The forest consist of different species of tropical hardwood of high economic value trees like Odum, Mahogany, Edinam and Wawa.  Lumbering has therefore been an important economic activity in the district.  However, this has been creating environmental problems, as there is no proper management of the forest reserves.  The Forest Reserves have been encroached by illegal chainsaw operators whose activities, if not checked, will deprive the Municipality of the needed forest resources for development.

Frequent outbreak of bushfires has also contributed to the depletion of forests and other forms of environmental degradation in the Municipality.  Most of the known wildlife such as the deer and monkeys, which were mostly found in the forests, now face extinction.

It is however, important that the Forestry Service Commission and the Municipal Assembly initiate a more intensive afforestation programme to preserve some of the important economic tree species to ensure ecological balance in the Municipality.  Sustainable harnessing of existing forest resources is also to be encouraged.


Relief and Drainage


The area falls under a forest-dissected plateau, rising to about 250m above sea level.  There are pockets of steep sided hills alternating with flat-bottomed valleys.  Dunkwa, the Municipal Capital, has a series of high lands circling it.  The major river in the area is the River Offin.  There are a number of streams which are tributaries to the river. Prominent among them are the Subin Ninta, Aponapon and Tuatian in the South, Afiefi and Subin in the North.



The principal soil found in the area is forest ochrosols.  The colour of these soils range between brown and orange.  The soil is not highly leached as oxysol.  Due to the reduction in the amount of rainfall, the soils contain greater quantities of soil nutrients and are generally alkaline.  From the view point of crop production, they are the best soils in the country.  Tree crops such as cocoa and oil palm thrive in the area.  Cocoa covers about 50% of the Municipality entire arable land.  Other crops like cassava, plantain and maize also do well.


Geology and Mineral


The rocks in the Municipality are predominantly of Birimian and Tarkwaian formation.  The Birimian formation consists of metamorphosed sediments as phyllites, schist and lava.  This accounts for the Municipality’s rich mineral deposits particularly alluvial gold deposit along the valleys of River Offin and its tributaries and gold deposits inland

Conditions of the Built Environment

Human activities do not only impact on the natural environment as have been portrayed vividly under natural environment discussed above; the impact manifests itself perhaps more prominently in areas where humanity lives.  Most activities of man in settlements he creates as permanent abode more often impacts negatively on the environment.  This aspect of the report highlights on the way of life of the people in terms of their shelter, and living conditions and practices that have direct bearing on the environment.

Land Management

Ownership of land in the Municipality like all other customary areas lies with the stool. However, families, clans and individual ownership can also be found. The Municipality does not have a well-structured land management system even with the presence of few institutions such as Town and Country planning and the Office of the Administrator of Stool lands as a result, land management activities have to be taken to the regional level before the process is completed. The customary land management has assumed the major system of managing lands in the Municipality. The head of the stool is regarded as the custodian of the lands while Territorial Chiefs are also empowered to manage lands in their territories. These Chiefs are responsible for the allocation of lands for development. There is established the Customary Land Secretariat, a National Government Authority in charge of the management of stool lands.


Biodiversity, Climate Change, Green Economy and Environment in general

Biodiversity, Green Economy and Environment

Biodiversity, Green Economy and Environment looks at reducing the environmental risk and ecological scarcities aiming at sustainable development without degrading the environment. In the area of ensuring environmental degradation the Municipality is battling with small scale miners popularly known as “galamsey”. Their operations have degraded portions of the large vast of land in the Municipality and even some part of the forest areas. There are also issues of illegal lumbering by chain saw operators both in the reserve and off-reserve which serves as a hindrance in greening the economy. It is also contributing to the extinction of animal and other microorganisms. However, task force have been put in place to ensure the operations of Galamsey operators. In terms of conserving and protecting the forest, there is the forestry department in the Municipality which have forest guards in place to limit illegalities. There are also measures in place to ensure afforestation of extinct species of trees in the Municipality.





Ensuring proper waste management as an aspect of Green Economy cannot be under estimated. The Municipality collaborates with Zoomlion in ensuring evacuation of refuse to landfill site. However the landfill site is full thereby creating environmental hazard to the surrounding community. Although the Assembly is in the process of acquiring a new landfill site, measures must be put in place to fast track the processes.


Climate Change


Climate Change, sometimes referred to as Global Warming, is the long-term alteration in global weather patterns, especially increases in temperature and storm activity, regarded as a potential consequence of the greenhouse effect.  It is the measurable increases in the average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, and landmasses.


Element of Change and Causes of Climate Change in the Municipality

The major element of change in the Municipality observed is Changes in the Temperature and the rainfall pattern. Some of the causes outlined as pertaining to the Municipality are emission of greenhouse gases (e.g. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) from over used vehicles); Deforestation (depletion of woodlots for light industrial and residential purposes), illegal mining activities and building along water ways or areas liable to flood.


Effects/Consequences of Climate Change in  the Municipality

Consequences of climate change are as follows.

  • Dwindling water and forest resources
    • Perennial drying up of water sources due to drought
    • Drying up of wetlands
    • De-vegetation of the land
    • Hardening of soil
    • Destruction of habitat of fauna
  • Soil erosion (leading to siltation of drains and water bodies).
  • Changing rainfall pattern - adversely affecting agricultural development.
  • Extreme Drought (Drying out of rivers and streams as a result of farming along river banks; and dumping of waste into the river beds).
  • Flooding as a result of heavy rains leading to the destruction of lives and property in communities such as are Sofokrom, Atachem, Accra Town, Railway/Kyekyewere Station, Presentease, Mbraiam, and Gambia, among others.
  • Threat to (extinction of)  plants and animal species


Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in the Municipality

  • Tree Planting
  • Conservation of forests
  • Sustainable (Physical) development
  • Good landscaping with plants
  • Construction of drainage system
  • Water Harvesting
  • Dredging of silted rivers and streams to allow for free flow of run-off water when it rains
  • Strict enforce with good building standards.


Water Security

Water situation has also been a burden on the Municipality since ensuring potable water embraces good health and development. The main sources of water in the Municipality are River-(River Offin), Pipe borne water, boreholes, Small Town Water System and Wells. The water is used for household activities, drinking, fishing, “galamsey” activities to mention but a few. Below is table 1.10 showing the sources of water and the percentage of household that uses water.


Table 1: Proportion of Sources of water Usage by Household

Sources of Water


Pipe Borne


Unprotected Wells

Rain Water





% of Household










From the table above, majority of the household depends on pipe borne for drinking and for other domestic purposes due to the presence of Ghana Water Company and Small Town Water Systems, followed by boreholes in the Municipality. However, some of the households have two or more sources of water for their household and other activities. Information gathered from the community assessment found out that (60) communities need boreholes. Also about 2.5 representing about 355 of the household use unprotected well and this call for an intervention since the effect of water borne diseases cannot be under estimated


Natural Resource Utilization

The Municipality is endowed with a lot of natural resources. The natural resources that exist in the Municipality are Gold, Arable land, Forest, Rivers etc. Below is table 1.12 indicating the type of natural resource, it utilisation, challenges and benefits that comes with it.



Table 2: Natural Resources and it Utilisation in the Municipality

Natural Resource




Challenges for Utilization

Benefits Derived from the Resources

Mineral Resources 


For making ornament eg. Rings, necklace

Galamsey operators operating illegally, destruction of forest and land degradation.


Mining Companies Making of  ring, necklace etc.

Arable Land

Agricultural land

  1. Fish Farming
  2. Oil Palm Production
  3. Cassava Production
  4. Vegetable Production
  5. Livestock and Poultry
  6. Cocoa Farming etc.

Encroachment by the mining companies reducing arable lands



  1. (Palm Oil/Palm Kernel Production
  2. Cassava Processing (Gari)


Forest Reserves

Forest reserves

Timber production and games and wildlife

Illegally felled down of trees

Employment (Timber firms)


Water Resources



Source of drinking water, irrigation, fishing

Galamsey operators destroying the water bodies



Fishing and Fish Farming Purposes, Irrigation, Satchet water production.


The table above indicate the type and the usage of the Natural resources that exist in the Municipality. From the table although there are enormous benefit that arise from the resource such as employment, the abusive usage of these resources is also posing challenges to the entire Municipality.



The total population of the Municipality is 101, 273 (projection using 2010 PHC as a base year). Out of the total population, males constitute 49.16% and females 50.84%. The population growth rate is 3.3% per annum. The sex ratio for the Municipality is 96.67, which means for every 100 females there are approximately 97 males. The current growth rate of 3.3% is higher than the national growth rate of 2.7% per annum.  In order to combat poverty and provide meaningful living for the people of the Municipality, pragmatic measures has to be taken to reduce the growth rate.


Age and Sex Composition

Age and sex are the most basic characteristics of a given population which influences many demographic and policy issues. Every population has a different age and sex composition signifying the number and proportions of males and females in each age group. This structure can have considerable impact on the population’s current and future social and economic situation (Haupt and Kane, 2011). There is however variations within the age cohorts in the Municipality, for example, from age 15 to 19, the population starts decreasing sharply more for males than females. Age and Sex structure is better explained using population pyramid. The shape of the pyramid is largely influenced by the levels of fertility, mortality and migration.

Figures from Table 3 below also indicates that population declines as ages increases at the urban area, which depicts that a larger proportion of the population lives in the rural areas. This can be attributed to the mining and farming activities in the rural areas. More than half (55.6%) of the population are rural dwellers.

Age dependency is used to study the support needed and given to young and/or old population. The Municipality records a large proportion of population younger than 15 years and persons 65 and older.  The Municipality’s dependency ratio is 74.2 percent. The urban setting records the highest of 77.1% of the dependency ratio compared to the ratio of the Municipality.






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